This half-hour psychedelic cosmological romp -- in which the passage of time doubles every five seconds -- features a sojourn into "Deep Time" of the far future of the Cosmos and includes quite the roster of famous physicists (to include the late Stephen Hawking).
The bulk of this look at future cosmological history is long after Earth (and Sun) has ceased to exist (to say nothing of the human race) … and it takes us into the era beyond theoretical proton decay and black hole evaporation … but it soon turns, as all things cosmological do, more quasi-theological than anything else … because what else can it do?
Image from the video: The percentage fraction of the "lifetime" of the Cosmos in which biological life as we know it -- in whatever form -- could possibly exist (click on image for larger version).
Black holes play an inordinate and, even now, conceptually little understood role in this Deep Time future. The video itself posits at one point a multiverse reality (or set of realities) with a suggested role of Intelligent Mind in each universe (i.e., as to whether that universe can "survive" or not).
The video gets to the point -- assuming proton decay -- in which only black holes exist -and even they start to evaporate via Hawking radiation. This question of proton decay is unresolved since its estimated half life is 1.67×10^ 34 years (i.e., 16.7 decillion years), i.e., 24 orders of magnitude longer than the Observable Universe has currently existed (13.8 billion years).
Screenshot: Two orbiting black holes emitting large amounts of gravitational (not "gravity") waves at 72 million trillion trillion trillion trillion … 72 x 10^54 … (that is, 72 septendecillion) years.
Video screenshot: The universe at 292 billion trillion trillion trillion trillion … 292 x 10^ 57 … (292 octodecillion) years.
Video screenshot: 1 trillion trillion trillion trillion trillion … 10^60 … or 1 novemdecillion years.
Video screenshot: 1 million trillion trillion trillion trillion … 10^66 … or 1 million novemdecillion or 1000 vigintillion years … the Era of Black Hole evaporation (it lasts a very, very long time).
The era in which each black hole simply "vanishes" in a final burst of light from Hawking radiation. In this incomprehensibly far future -- at about 100 novemdecillion years -- there is a touch of fireworks display. Again, this assumes proton decay.
As the video notes, any "lifeform" existing at this time will have a "thought" that could take quadrillions or more of "years" to occur … And this should not be confused with the Boltzmann Brain concept.
What's more, after the Era of Black Hole Evaporation, dark energy continues to accelerate the Universe with the quantum foam of spacetime inflating universes -- which brings us to the multiverse. But let's hold off on that a second since I want to talk about the Poincaré Recurrence time (when the Observable Universe would simply repeat itself).
To be clear, even at 100 novemdecillion years, this is no where near the Poincaré Recurrence time for the Observable Universe. The video does not get into that.
About that Poincaré Recurrence time, it has been calculated by Don Page, University of Alberta physicist, for the Observable Universe -- or rather, for the quantum state of a hypothetical box containing a black hole with mass M equal to the mass of the Observable Universe -- as:
t[Poincaré]=e^e[4π×M^2] ≈ 10^10^10^2.08
where t and M are expressed in Planck units.
And for the Universe, whether observable or not, he calculates it as:
t[Poincaré]=e^e[4π×M^2] ≈ 10^10^10^10^10^122 (that's 10 billion raised to the ten billion power and that whole thing raised to the power 10^122, i.e., one googol times 10 septillion).
This is beyond my ability to comprehend. And here I thought a Dyson Sphere alien megastructure was astonishing.
Speaking of which, here is my Dyson Hippo and his fellow trans-dimensional, multiversal, Unmitigated and Unbounded Minds of Love …
Maybe I should consider instead the possibility of a Boltzmann Hippo??